C. culturally universal
E. culturally relative2. Those counselors adopting what perspective argue for the use of culture–specific strategies in counseling and psychotherapy ?
B. culturally universal
D. culturally relative
E. multicultural3. Choosing one´s counseling approach is based upon which two factors ?
A. training and personality
B. simplicity and universality
C. complication and effectiveness
D. exposure and personal fit
E. culture and worldview4. Your comfort level with a particular counseling approach is based on several factors, including ?
A. your personality characteristics.
B. where you learned about the approach.
C. how complicated the approach tends to be.
D. the amount of research supporting the approach.
E. how many of your colleagues are using the approach.5. According to the textbook, the most accurate barometer of whether or not a particular counseling approach “fits” you resides in your ?
B. clients´ inclinations
C. colleagues´ preferences
E. instructor´s head6. What refers to the practice of drawing upon more than one counseling theory when working with clients ?
D. Theoretical eclecticism
E. Technical eclecticism7. What refers to the practice of drawing upon a variety of counseling techniques when working with clients ?
C. Theoretical eclecticism
D. Technical eclecticism
E. Haphazardism8. Which of the following is NOT identified in the textbook as a qualification for practicing eclecticism ?
A. Comfort with ambiguity.
B. Competence in more than one approach.
C. An overarching theory to guide practice.
D. Extensive experience in psychotherapy.
E. Formal training in more than one approach.9. What involves identifying the common elements in different approaches to psychotherapy and developing a new formal theoretical approach ?
E. Proliferation10. The professional organization that was formed in 1983 to support psychotherapy integration is known as the ?
A. Integrationists International.
B. International Forum of Integrationists.
C. Society for Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration.
D. Next Generation Psychotherapists.
E. American Counseling Association for New Approaches.11. In order to overcome the barrier of a lack of common language, an international task force of therapists representing many approaches has set to the task of creating a dictionary titled ?
A. The Bible of Integration Psychotherapy.
B. Common Language of Psychotherapy Procedures.
C. The Integrationist´s Encyclopedia.
D. Flowing Language for Integrationists.
E. Integration Psychotherapy Dictionary.12. Things such as socio–cultural values, political movements, historical events, and economic factors are known within which counseling theories originate ?
E. frameworks13. Which were the only two major approaches to psychotherapy that existed in the first half of the 20th century ?
A. Jungian and Gestalt
B. Psychoanalytic and Gestalt
C. Adlerian and Psychoanalytic
D. Jungian and Person–centered
E. Person–centered and Adlerian14. Until recently revised, the major weakness of the predominant theories of counseling was that ?
A. none of them had been closely examined through research
B. they were developed by theorists with little formal education
C. none of them were based upon practice
D. they were developed by White males for predominantly White, heterosexual, middle–class clients
E. the literature behind them was weak15. Which approach has been broadened beyond its original focus on one particular oppressed group of people to include other culturally diverse groups who have been subject to oppression and discrimination ?
E. contextual16. Which of the following is NOT a premise of family therapy ?
A. Recently developed forms of family therapy are closely aligned with the multicultural perspective that focuses on the individual in a cultural context.
B. One family member needs to be identified as “the client” for change to occur.
C. No individual is the “source” of the problem
D. Interpersonal dynamics that occur in the family are central.
E. The socio–political context in which a family lives is crucial.17. A statistical technique that allows researchers to pull together the results of many studies for comparison is known as ?
A. quasi–experimental research.
B. faux research.
E. secondary research.18. What is that consists of online sessions in which the questions posed to the client and the responses to the client´s answers are computer–generated ?
B. Electronic therapy
C. Computer–generated helping
D. High–tech helping
E. Virtual therapy19. Every psychotherapeutic approach has two components ?
A. theory and practice
B. case conceptualization and practice
C. theory and case conceptualization
D. practice and evaluation
E. intervention and evaluation20. The most fundamental difference among psychotherapies is their ?
A. length of treatment
B. scope of practice
C. theoretical orientation
D. client base
E. training21. Many psychotherapists consider which out of these legitimate goals for counseling when particular psychological problems are not present ?
A. personal growth; gaining self–knowledge
B. relief of psychological distress; validation of problems
C. validation of client issues; personal transformation
D. projection of weaknesses; transference of grief
E. suggesting problems; solving problems22. The overarching goal of personal therapy for counselors in training is to.
A. practice self–disclosure.
B. learn more about themselves.
C. test particular theories.
D. enhance transference.
E. create an awareness of severe underlying psychological issues.23. In counseling, the three types of prevention of psychological problems are ?
A. internal, external, and systemic.
B. upper, middle, and lower.
C. first order, second order, and third order.
D. individual, family, and community.
E. primary, secondary, and tertiary.24. Which of the following is NOT one of the five most common strategies for change ?
A. developing insight
B. entrenching cognitions
C. creating systemic change
D. increasing awareness
E. engaging in adaptive behaviors25. Which of the following is the most frequently employed change strategy ?
A. entrenching cognitions
B. increasing awareness
C. developing insight
D. creating systemic change
E. engaging in adaptive behaviors